Co-authored with Roger Tweed, Ph. Historial Background to Positive Psychology in North America Humanistic Psychology The story of positive psychology PP in America begins long prior to the modern movement called PP, and the humanistic psychologists provide a reasonable place to begin. Humanist psychologists were the first psychologists who focused on the positive side of people—their innate goodness and natural tendency towards the self-actualization of their potentials.
This theory is a classical depiction of human motivation. This theory is based on the assumption that there is a hierarchy of five needs within each individual. The urgency of these needs varies. These five needs are as follows- Physiological needs- These are the basic needs of air, water, food, clothing and shelter.
In other words, physiological needs are the needs for basic amenities of life. Safety needs- Safety needs include physical, environmental and emotional safety and protection.
For instance- Job security, financial security, protection from animals, family security, health security, etc. Social needs- Social needs include the need for love, affection, care, belongingness, and friendship. Esteem needs- Esteem needs are of two types: It includes the need for growth and self-contentment.
It also includes desire for gaining more knowledge, social- service, creativity and being aesthetic. The self- actualization needs are never fully satiable. As an individual grows psychologically, opportunities keep cropping up to continue growing. According to Maslow, individuals are motivated by unsatisfied needs.
As each of these needs is significantly satisfied, it drives and forces the next need to emerge. Maslow grouped the five needs into two categories - Higher-order needs and Lower-order needs. The physiological and the safety needs constituted the lower-order needs.
These lower-order needs are mainly satisfied externally.
The social, esteem, and self-actualization needs constituted the higher-order needs. These higher-order needs are generally satisfied internally, i. Thus, we can conclude that during boom period, the employees lower-order needs are significantly met. Breaks and eating opportunities should be given to employees.
As far as the safety needs are concerned, the managers should provide the employees job security, safe and hygienic work environment, and retirement benefits so as to retain them. As far as social needs are concerned, the management should encourage teamwork and organize social events.
As far as esteem needs are concerned, the managers can appreciate and reward employees on accomplishing and exceeding their targets.
Moreover, growth opportunities can be given to them so that they can reach the peak. The managers must identify the need level at which the employee is existing and then those needs can be utilized as push for motivation.
Different individuals may be driven by different needs at same point of time. It is always the most powerful unsatisfied need that motivates an individual.Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs is one of the first theories of motivation and probably the best-known one.
It was first presented in in Dr. Abraham Maslow’s article "A Theory of Human Motivation" in Psychological Review, and was further expanded in his book “Toward a Psychology of . Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a motivational theory in psychology comprising a five-tier model of human needs, often depicted as hierarchical levels within a pyramid.
Needs lower down in the hierarchy must be satisfied before . Nudge theory is a flexible and modern change-management concept for: understanding of how people think, make decisions, and behave, helping people improve their thinking and decisions.
Historial Background to Positive Psychology in North America Humanistic Psychology. The story of positive psychology (PP) in America begins long prior to the modern movement called PP, and the humanistic psychologists provide a reasonable place to begin. Maslow’s Hierarchy Theory. A big question in terms of motivation is “what motivates behavior?”One theory called Maslow’s Hierarchy focuses on behavior of individuals to achieve certain needs.
Peplau’s theory defined Nursing as “An interpersonal process of therapeutic interactions between an individual who is sick or in need of health services and a nurse especially educated to recognize, respond to the need for help.” It is a “maturing force and an educative instrument” involving an interaction between two or more individuals with a common goal.