Fate From the beginning, we know that the story of Romeo and Juliet will end in tragedy. We also know that their tragic ends will not result from their own personal defects but from fate, which has marked them for sorrow. Emphasizing fate's control over their destinies, the Prologue tells us these "star-cross'd lovers'" relationship is deathmark'd.
Text and performance D1. As in the poetry section of this tutorial P1. Nevertheless, what has to be noted from the outset is that there is a strong family resemblance between drama and prose fiction.
Both genres are narrative text types, and it is for this reason that the theory of drama and the theory of narrative texts cover a good deal of common ground Richardson ; ; Indeed, whenever possible, the following account will borrow from the inventory of concepts that has been created within what is now known as 'narratology' N0.
For a critical view of this approach and an argument to restrict narratology to prose narratives see Genette In a bookshop, you will find the drama section next to the fiction and the poetry sections. But does that mean that a play is a type of text just like a novel or a poem?
Today, most theorists assume that the true nature of a play lies in its orientation toward a public performance, toward being or becoming a 'play in performance' in which the characters' parts are enacted by actors. The play's text is variously seen as a guide to a performance, comparable to a blueprint, a musical score Krieger As to the role of the audience, audience reactions laughing, crying etc.
All this is reflected in Pfister's basic definition. A play is a multimedial form designed to be staged in a public performance. A play is 'multimedial' in the sense that it uses both auditory and visual media: Extending Pfister's definition, we will say that a play is a multimedial narrative form because it presents a story a sequence of action units.
Note that, on this view, there are two main narrative forms: Regarding the criterion of public staging, two exceptions have to be noted: A closet drama is a play that is primarily designed to be read. Often these plays are identified as 'dramatic poems'.
As to private showings, the seclusive Bavarian king Ludwig II had the habit of ordering entirely private performances of Wagner's operas -- much to the composer's annoyance.
Just as the reception of a play is a collective public experience, staging a play is a collective enterprise, involving the collaboration of many people including producers, directors, designers, choreographers, musicians, and, of course, actors.
A director is the person in charge of staging a play, developing the concept of the production, and of conducting the rehearsals; also the person usually responsible for and credited with a production, typically designated his or her production.
Note, however, that, like conducting, directing is a relatively recent, i. A good producer "has the genius to recognise a potentially great piece of theatre as well as find the finance for it to be put on" Lathan A stage manager is in charge of the concrete performance event, especially of overseeing and co-ordinating all backstage activity.
The reader may wish to skip the following sections on various approaches to drama and turn directly to D2. Historically, it is useful to distinguish three types or 'schools' of drama theory and interpretation.
As the following brief survey will show, they constitute the dialectic stages of a Fichtean thesis-antithesis-synthesis cycle. Each school, from its specific point of view, has strong views about what counts as true, false, interesting, important, or unimportant; and their followers belong to distinct "interpretive communities" Fish In the following three sub-paragraphs, these schools are summarily described by listing their main tenets, their favorite interpretive strategies, their keywords and catchphrases, and their agendas.
Bearing in mind the relativity thus introduced, the present introduction largely embraces the beliefs of the Reading Drama school as laid down in PfisterScanlan and Scolnicov and Holland, eds. Poetic Drama prioritizes the printed dramatic text. Reading the dramatic text is seen as a uniquely suitable and rewarding experience, particularly when viewed against the shortcomings of theaters, actors, and actual performances.
Only the careful reading of a play brings out the work's full aesthetic quality and richness. Dislike of actors, audiences, and theatrical institutions expressly including the Renaissance public theaters. Poetic drama, dramatic poetry, drama as literature, theater in the mind, "inferior to the original".
I hardly ever go to the theater I don't go to the theater because I can always do a better production in my mind. Is not Hamlet, seen in the dream theatre of the imagination as one reads, a greater play than Hamlet interpreted even by a perfect production?
Theater Studies is an approach that privileges the performance over the text. According to this approach, a play's text has no independent existence whatsoever. See Styan for a programmatic exposition, Hornby for a critique of the Poetic Drama approach, LevinTaylorHawkins [all on the text vs performance issue as related to Shakespeare].Romeo and Juliet is a tragedy written by William Shakespeare early in his career about two young star-crossed lovers whose deaths ultimately reconcile their feuding families.
It was among Shakespeare's most popular plays during his lifetime and along with Hamlet, is one of /5(K). Romeo and Juliet study guide contains a biography of William Shakespeare, literature essays, a complete e-text, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis.
William Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet is an excellent introduction to Shakespearean drama; teenagers can relate to its plot, characters, and themes. The play's action is easily understood, the character's motives are clear, and many of the themes are as current today as they were in Shakespeare's time.
This is an excellent complement to your English 9 curriculum. The DVD contains a dramatic production of the famous Shakespeare play. All scenes from the play are in this version. LitCharts assigns a color and icon to each theme in Romeo and Juliet, which you can use to track the themes throughout the work.
From the opening prologue when the Chorus summarizes Romeo and Juliet and says that the "star-crossed lovers" will die, Romeo and Juliet are trapped by fate.
Fate played a large role in Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet, celestial imagery foreshadowed fate, as well as Shakespeare presenting many "what if" statements intricately intertwined, making the reader wonder what would happen, slowly ensuring that they would continue to read on.